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Fire risk and preventive measures of wood processing plants

wood processing plays an important role in meeting the needs of industrial and agricultural production and people's life. With the development of wood processing industry, the comprehensive utilization rate of wood is constantly improving, and the number of processing plants is also increasing. Because the fire resistance of the workshop of general wood processing plant is low; The processed raw materials are combustible substances (the ignition point is generally 250 ~ 300 ℃, and the spontaneous combustion point is generally about 350 ℃); A large number of sawdust, shavings, sawdust, etc. produced in the production process are easier to burn than wood. Among them, when sawdust, etc. meets fire, the smoldering time is long, which is not easy to find in time; In order to shorten the production cycle, the artificial drying method (barn) is often used for drying, which uses more open flames and consumes more power; Some processes also need to use flammable and explosive liquids as adhesives, which correspondingly increases the fire risk. Once a fire occurs in a wood processing enterprise, it will burn violently and spread rapidly, which is easy to cause continuous fire. However, some wood processing owners have insufficient understanding of fire prevention work, and most of them have a fluke mentality, resulting in many fire hazards. Through the fire prevention supervision and inspection of the wood processing industry in recent years, the author summarizes the common problems and preventive measures in the fire protection work of wood processing enterprises into the following aspects:

first, the problems in the fire protection work of the wood processing industry

first, the functional departments in charge of examination and approval lack a mutual restriction mechanism. For a long time, in the approval process of wood processing enterprises, the mechanism of mutual restriction between the competent departments has not been fully established, and it is relatively difficult to control low temperature and low humidity. As a result, many wood enterprises distributed in rural areas missed the audit during the construction period, and were put into production without the audit and acceptance of the fire department, resulting in prominent congenital hidden dangers

second, wood processing enterprises are mostly simple buildings with extremely low fire resistance. Some of the production workshops and warehouses engaged in wood processing plants are rented residential houses, and some are built with wood asbestos tiles (linoleum), forming that the vast majority of wood processing enterprises are simple buildings with low fire resistance rating. Once a fire occurs, it will contribute to the rapid spread of the fire, which brings great difficulties to the fire prevention and extinguishing work

third, the planning is unreasonable, and illegal use of electricity and fire is widespread. Due to the limitation of land, most wood processing plants have a large randomness in layout in order to make full use of the limited space. The production area, wood yard, warehouse and living area in the plant are mixed together. The installation of electrical equipment does not comply with the safety operation procedures. The wiring in the factory is pulled and connected without permission, the wiring is aging, the lines passing through combustible materials are not protected by pipes, the fuses are replaced by copper wires and iron wires, the self-contained generators and diesel engines are processed, and the stacking of raw materials and finished products around the passages, doorways, machinery and electrical equipment are common

fourth, there is a lack of fire-fighting infrastructure and fire-fighting equipment. Most wood processing enterprises are located in the suburbs and far away from the urban areas and counties, where there is no public fire water supply pipe. Most of the processing plants are not equipped with enough fire-fighting equipment, and some lack maintenance and fail

fifth, the system is not perfect and not implemented. Most wood processing plants have no fire safety management system or safety operation procedures. Although some enterprises have some simple fire safety systems and safety operation procedures, they can only put the system on the wall and implement it orally. We can't correct the existing hidden dangers and problems in time, but only make superficial remarks

sixth, self-defense and self rescue ability and fire safety knowledge education need to be improved. Small wood processing enterprises only pay attention to production and management, ignoring fire safety work. Most business owners and employees have not received fire safety training, lack of fire safety knowledge, and poor self-defense and self-help ability. The phenomenon of not cleaning the sawdust waste in time and not maintaining and inspecting the mechanical equipment and fire-fighting equipment in time is prominent, and the existing fire-fighting facilities and equipment cannot be used correctly. Once a fire occurs, we do not know how to put out the fire and evacuate people and materials

Second, countermeasures for fire safety in the current wood processing industry

first, establish a linkage management mechanism for all relevant departments, strengthen the audit of wood processing enterprises, and block the fire hazards from the source. At the beginning of the establishment of the wood processing plant, strict audit systems, especially the audit and acceptance of building fire prevention, are important means to avoid potential fire hazards. The local industry and commerce, forestry, fire protection and other relevant departments should contact each other, conduct linkage management, and strictly control the construction and examination. Enterprise 4. If the material temperature is too low, there will be a shortage of materials. The owner should submit the building construction drawings and the planning drawings of the plant to the fire department for review before construction. For units without the review opinions of the fire department, the construction department will not issue a construction permit; For processing enterprises that fail to pass the fire control acceptance and have not been audited by the fire control department, forestry, industry and Commerce will not go through the registration, registration, business license and other relevant procedures

second, strengthen the construction of fire-fighting organizations to ensure that fire-fighting facilities are complete and easy to use. Most wood processing plants are far away from the fire brigade, and traffic and communication are inconvenient in many places. Therefore, efforts must be made to improve the ability of self-defense and self rescue. First, establish a fire safety organization, allocate full-time or part-time fire prevention personnel, and ensure that there are special organizations and special personnel to pay attention to the fire prevention work of the enterprise. Assign special personnel to manage and repair the fire-fighting facilities and equipment of the enterprise, make short-term plans, arrangements and inspections for fire safety, and timely rectify potential safety hazards; Secondly, rules and regulations should be established and customized at all levels. Put fire safety work into enterprise management

third, strengthen the law enforcement and supervision of fire protection, carry out governance in a timely manner, and standardize the fire safety management of the wood industry. Fire law enforcement supervision is the basic means to find and eliminate fire hazards, correct illegal behaviors, and prevent and reduce fires. For the fire hazards found in the inspection, those that can be corrected on the spot should be urged to correct on the spot. For those that cannot be rectified at the moment, corresponding safety measures must be taken. Under the condition of ensuring safety, they should be corrected while producing. For some major fire hazards, they should be closed for rectification. For units that refuse to correct and cannot be rectified, compulsory measures such as adjusting and canceling business licenses, relevant licenses or relocating and changing purposes should be taken to solve them. In the fire safety inspection of the wood processing industry, the public security fire protection institutions should pay attention to supervising the implementation and solving the following problems:

1. Urge enterprises to carry out regular and irregular self inspection, implement various fire safety management systems, and constantly strengthen fire protection work

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2. It is clear that the fire safety situation of local wood processing enterprises is clear

3. The fire resistance rating, floor area and fire separation of the wood processing plant should meet the requirements of the code for fire protection design of buildings, and the flammable buildings still in use should be gradually transformed as required

4. The workshops, warehouses, curing houses, feeding plants and living areas in the wood processing plant should be set up separately, and a certain fire separation distance should be left. Firewalls should be used to separate those that cannot leave enough fire separation distance

5. The logs stacked in the open air in the wood processing plant shall be stacked neatly, and shall not occupy the passage. The stacking place shall be far away from the boiler and other open fire operation places, and shall not be close to the warehouse of dangerous goods and finished products

6. The amount of wood stacked in the workshop of the wood processing plant should be strictly controlled, and excessive storage is not allowed. The processed finished products should be transported away in time. Raw materials and finished products shall not be stacked around passages, doorways, mechanical equipment and electrical equipment

7. Sawdust and sawdust produced in wood processing and production shall not be stacked in the workshop. Shavings and waste should be removed daily

8. The installation and use of electrical equipment and the laying of lines should meet the requirements of the electrical equipment installation specification. For those that do not meet the requirements, they should be urged to replace, overhaul and ensure the safety of electricity use

9. Urge timber enterprises to implement basic fire-fighting facilities and equipment, build fire-fighting pools and ensure sufficient fire-fighting water sources

10. Electric welding, gas welding, gas cutting or other open flames shall not be used in the wood processing workshop. When they must be used, approval procedures shall be handled, fire prevention measures shall be taken, the combustibles in and around the hot work area shall be completely removed, and fire-fighting equipment shall be prepared. After the hot work, special personnel shall be assigned to check to prevent residual fire

11. Strengthen the fire prevention measures in the drying process, and improve and eliminate some backward production processes with high fire risk

in short, the fire safety management of wood processing enterprises depends on the high attention of the government and all functional departments. The public security fire department and the public security police station should further establish a sense of service, urge enterprises to establish and improve the fire safety system, so that key personnel training is in place, fire prevention facilities and equipment are configured in place, preventive measures are in place for key parts, daily inspections and regular inspections are in place, and fire hazards are rectified in place, Ensure that there are no loopholes and dead corners in safety management, so that the fire safety behavior of enterprises can be standardized. Provide safety guarantee for the healthy and rapid development of wood processing enterprises

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