Quadrangles types of quadrangles building elements

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1 types of quadrangles

quadrangles have different types due to their different sizes, grades and contents. Beijing quadrangles mainly have the following types:

(1) Yijin courtyard (also known as the basic type), which is composed of East, South, West, North houses and gates

(2) the first entrance courtyard, that is, the basic courtyard, forms the second entrance courtyard by building two doors or vertically juxtaposing the architectural content of the first entrance courtyard. The two entrance courtyard of Beijing quadrangles is usually based on the basic courtyard, separated by a two door building in front of the wing room to form an inner and outer courtyard

(3) on the basis of the two entry courtyard, the three entry courtyard is formed by vertically juxtaposing or building a rear cover room, also known as the standard type. The common practice of standard courtyards is to juxtapose the building contents of the second courtyard vertically to form the third courtyard, and some build a back cover room to form the third courtyard

(4) the four entry courtyard and the five entry courtyard basically repeat the practice of the three entry courtyard. The difference is that the depth and length of the four entry courtyard and the five entry courtyard are mostly through two hutongs, so in general, the last entry courtyard will appear in the form of covering the house

2 architectural elements of quadrangles

quadrangles are a group of architectural concepts, which are composed of multiple single buildings. The architectural elements of Beijing quadrangles are mainly composed of gate, concierge, inverted room, movie wall, second door, viewing wall, main room, wing room, ear room, porch and back cover room, and some large houses have garden buildings. Next, we choose several relatively important architectural elements to discuss

(1) gate. The gate of the quadrangle is the passageway for people out of the courtyard. In general, in the East-West Hutong, the courtyard gate on the north side is usually built at the southeast corner of the courtyard, and the courtyard gate on the south side is usually built at the northwest corner. The courtyard gate on the east side of the North-South street is usually built at the southwest corner of the courtyard, facing west. The courtyard gate on the west side is usually built at the southeast corner of the courtyard, facing east. However, some courtyards have been adjusted as appropriate

(2) shadow wall and screen door. The cinema wall is a building that plays a role of shelter, barrier and beautification in quadrangles. According to the location, the shadow wall can be divided into two types: outside the gate and inside the gate. According to the different forms of shadow wall, it can be divided into four types: one character shadow wall, eight character shadow wall, pie mountain shadow wall and Zuoshan shadow wall

(3) main room. The main room is also called the upper room. The main room is generally located on the axis of the courtyard. It is the building with the largest volume and the highest building grade in each courtyard. The roof truss form of the main house is mostly seven purlin front and rear porch, five purlin front porch or six purlin front porch, and the face width is the most common three or five. The roof ridges of the main houses are mainly Qingshui ridge, phishuipai ridge and Anzi ridge. Most of the main houses of traditional quadrangles only open the door between the front eaves, and windows are opened between the secondary and tip

(4) wing room is a house building located in front of the main house and opposite to each other on both sides of the courtyard. The architectural form of the two houses is the same, the volume is smaller than the main house, and the ridge form is sometimes lower than the main house

3 decoration of quadrangles

the buildings of Beijing quadrangles are also decorated from the roof, the body of the house to the foundation, and from inside to outside. Traditionally, these decorative treatments of buildings are collectively referred to as decoration. The decoration of Beijing quadrangles is divided into wood decoration, brick (tile) stone carving decoration and paint painting decoration according to the material. As a residential function, in addition to the above beautification and decoration attached to the building, furniture and decorative decorations in daily life are also necessary, and these are collectively referred to as furnishings. These furnishings are often treated artistically, so many furnishings are part of architectural decoration. For example, Duobao bucket is a decorative object that plays a partition role in wood decoration, and it is also a practical furnishing object for placing stationery. Another example is that mount stone is a practical tool for people to mount and dismount, and its itself and the exquisite carvings on it play a very strong decorative role in the house. Therefore, the decoration and furnishings are interlinked to a certain extent. Together, they decorate the Beijing Quadrangle with cyan gray as the main color to be more elegant and artistic

4 quadrangle pictures





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